Appendix A

Alignment of the Sothis of Pseudo-Manetho with Josephus and Manetho

 

Full Comparison of the Sothis of Pseudo-Manetho
with the King-lists of Josephus and Manetho

#1 Order. Josephus [years] Pseudo-Manetho Manetho Pos.4
         

1st Dynasty (partial)2

1   Menes Menes 1
2   Kourodes Ousaphaidos 5
3   Aristarkhos Miebidos 6
4   Spanios Semempses 7
5   (unnamed) Bienekhes? 8
         
2nd Dynasty? (partial)
6   (unnamed) Boethos? 1
         
4th Dynasty (partial)
7   Osiropis Soris 1
         
12th Dynasty (partial)
8   Sesonkhosis Sesonkhosis 1
9   Amenemes Ammenemes 2
         
18th Dynasty (fragment)
10 9. Thummosis Amasis Amosis 1
11 20. Acencheres I? Akesephthres Khenkheres? 12?
12 21. Acencheres II Ankhoreus Akherres 13
13 22. Armais Armiyses Armais 14
         
19th Dynasty (fragment)
14 23. Ramesses Khamois Ramesses I 1
15 24. Armesses Miamoun Miamous Ramesses II 3
16 25. Amenophis Amesesis Merneptah 4
17 26. Sethosis & Ramesses Ouses Sethos II 5
18 Rhameses —  
         
20th Dynasty (partial)
19   Rhamesomenes "12 Kings"  
20   Ousimares    
21   Rhamesseseos    
22   Rhamesameno    
23   Rhamasse Ioubasse    
24   Rhamesse son of Ouaphres    
25   Konkharis    
         
Hyksos (complete?)
         
  1. Toutimaios (last king of 14th Dyn.)      
26 2. Salatis [13] Silites [19] Saites [19] 1
27 3. Beon [44] Baion [44] Bnon [44] 2
28 4. Apachnas [36] Apakhnas [36] Pakhnan [61] 3
29 5. Apophis [61] Aphophis [61] Aphobis [61] 6
30 6. Jonias [50] Sethos [50] Staan [50] 4
31 — Kertos [44] — —
32 7. Assis [49] Asseth [20] Arkhles [49] 5
         
18th Dynasty (complete)
  8. Alisphragmuthosis      
33 9. Thummosis Amosis Amosis/Tethmosis 1
34 10. Chebron Khebron Chebron 2
35 11. Amenophis Amemphis Amenophis 3
36 12. Amesses Amenses Amessis 4
37 14. Mephramuthosis Misphragmouthosis Misphragmoutosis 6
38 13. Memphres Miphres Memphres 5
39 15. Tethmosis Touthmosis Touthmosis 7
40 16. Amenophis Amenophthis Amenophis 8
41 17. Orus Oros Oros 9
42 18. Acenchres Akhenkheres Akherres 10
43 19. Rathotis Athoris Rhathos 11
44 20. Acencheres Khenkheres Khenkheres 12
45 21. Acencheres Akherres Akherres 13
46 22. Armais Armaios=Danaos Armais 14
         
19th Dynasty (fragment)
47 24. Armesses Miamoun Rhamesses=Aigyptos Ramesses II 3
48 25. Amenophis Amenophis Merneptah 4
49   Thouris Thouoris 7
         
26th Dynasty? (fragment)
50 Nekhepsos   Nekhepsos 2
51 Psammouthis   Psammouthis 4
         
19th Dynasty (complete)
52 23. Ramesses (unnamed) Ramesses I 1
53 — Kertos Sethos I 2
54 24. Armesses Miamoun Rhampsis Ramesses II 3
55 25. Amenophis Amenses/Ammenemes Merneptah 4
56 26. Sethosis=Aigyptos & Ramesses Okhyras Sethos II 5
57 27. Armais II=Danaos Amendes Amenmose 6
58 — Thouoris Thouoris 7
         
1st Dynasty (completed)
59   Athosis Athosis 2
60   Kenkenes Kenkenes 3
61   Ouennephis Ouennephis 4
         
21st Dynasty
62   Sousakeim Smendes 1
63   Psouenos Psousennes 2
64   Ammenophis Amenophthis 3
65   Nepherkheres Nepherkheres 4
66   Saites Osokhor 5
67   Psinakhes Psinakhes 6
68   Petoubastes3 Psousennes 7
         
22nd Dynasty
      Sesonkhosis 1
69   Osorthon Osorthon 2
70   Psammos3 "3 others" 3
71   Konkharis 4
72   Osorthon 5
73   Takalophis Takelothis 6
         
24th Dynasty
74   Bokkhoris Bokhkhoris 1
         
25th Dynasty
75   Sabakon Sabakon 1
76   Sebekhon Sebikhos 2
77   Tarakes Tarkos 3
78   Amaës —  
         
26th Dynasty
79   Stephinathes  Stephinates 1
80   Nekhepsos Nekhepsos 2
81   Nekhao Nekhao 3
82   Psammetikhos Psammouthis/Psammetikhos 4
83   Nekhao Nekhao 5
84   Psamouthis/Psammetikhos Psammouthis/Psammetikhos 6
85   Ouaphris Ouaphris 7
86    Amosis Amosis 8
         

1Order of the Sothis of Pseudo-Manetho. 2Parenthetical remarks refer to the Sothis of Pseudo-Manetho only.
3Manetho has a Petoubates and a Psammous in his 23rd Dynasty. 4Position in the dynasty of Manetho.

Clearly, the list of Pseudo-Manetho may leave much to be desired, but he, at least, managed to preserve more of the kings of Egypt in his list than did Josephus, though he appears to have confused his Armaios and Rhamesses with the Amenmose and Sethos II of Manetho. On the other hand, Josephus may have left out more kings, but at least he managed to get their order right and he manages to identify Aigyptos and Danaos correctly, based on our own identification of Sethosis with Seti II, Ramesses with Moses, and Armais II with Aaron. One has to wonder why Josephus, who was so intent on identifying the Hebrews with an historical people, insisted on seeing them as Hyksos rather than followers of Ramesses and Armais, thus easily obviating all of the problems with identifying his ancestors with a people infected with "leprosy" or tzaraath, a general term for any kind of scaling disease, conceivably nothing more serious than severe dry skin or ichthyosis. One is reminded of the fish-like beings that emerged from the Persian Gulf to whom the arrival of the principles of civilization were ascribed by the Sumerians. These were the Annunaki, whose origins have been extraterrestrialized by the likes of Zecharia Sitchin, but who must have been an early seafaring people possibly related to the early inhabitants of Crete.

 

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